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  • Cetamura del Chianti
  • Gaiole in Chianti
  • Civitamura
  • Italy
  • Tuscany
  • Province of Siena
  • Gaiole in Chianti

Summary (English)

  • The following four projects were pursued:

    1. Room 1 of Area G on Zone I, excavated in 1982 and 1984, was reopened to study a pit discovered next to its east wall which had contained the antlers of a deer and animal bone. The foundations of Room 1, of medieval date, appear to overlie the pit. 2. Another area, on the scarp in between Zone I and Zone II, was reopened to resume probing the Refuse Pit (segment III) running under the Roman terracing and a fragmentary Roman wall. The matrix of RP III was filled with ash and hundreds of fragments of bone, tooth and antler, as well as 4th-century black gloss, Cetamura Fabrics (especially cookwares), and bucchero, including one base inscribed with a siglum of a cross mark (forma quadrans) with symmetrical markings in the quadrants.

    3. On Zone II, work focused on the Etruscan artisans’ quarter. In units east, north and west of the kiln Structure K, strata emerged near the surface with medieval and Roman artifacts—majolica, red gloss, glass, and coins. One unit was so rich in iron slag, nails and other, unidentifiable iron objects that it seems likely that this was an area of iron working; Roman artifacts were the latest datable objects. Excavations were reopened around Structure J, a stone platform that was part of the kiln workshop, and near the southwest corner of Structure H, of which one wall running east-west is under investigation. Its masonry style suggests a date of ca. 300-150 B.C. Finds in the unit included 5 polished stone and/or glass gaming pieces. On the south side of the wall the deposit was consistent with the workers’ yard for the kiln area around Structure J—dense carbon, refractory brick, numerous sherds of pottery, a typical Late Etruscan assemblage of black gloss and Cetamura Fabrics, especially CF 3 (hydrias). Structure J encompasses a feature of stones in a rough circle (diameter ca. 1.00m) that may be a kiln.

    4. In Building L, the Etruscan sanctuary of the second century B.C., Room 2 was excavated, a small chamber (ca. 1×3m) oriented north-south with three foundation walls belonging to Late Phase II (150-75 B.C.) and a fourth wall belonging to Phase I but reworked. The yellow clay beaten earth floor was, as usual, nearly sterile. Northeast of Room 2, excavation was begun in Room 5, a chamber with foundation walls measuring nearly the same as those in Rooms 1 and 2. On the southwest exterior of Building L, in one unit bedrock was encountered near the surface, except in an area where a large curving line demarcated a clay deposit, suggesting the presence of a large circular structure with clay packed around it. Further to the west, the lower part of a large dolio began to emerge within an area of dumping, possibly in situ. Numerous artifacts were retrieved from the dump, including fired brick, iron nails, a bronze nail cap, flint, bone and ceramics (black gloss, Cetamura Fabrics 1-4).
  • Nancy T. de Grummond - Florida State University, Tallahassee, Dept. of Classics 


  • Nancy T. de Grummond - Florida State University, Tallahassee, Dept. of Classics


  • Ornella Fonzo
  • Nòra Marosi - Studio Art Centers International, Florence
  • Rosalba Settesoldi
  • Francesco Cini - ICHNOS
  • Mauro Buonincontri - ICHNOS
  • Nancy T. de Grummond - Florida State University, Tallahassee, Dept. of Classics
  • J. Theodore Peña - University of California, Berkeley

Research Body

  • Florida State University, Tallahassee, Dept. of Classics
  • New York University
  • Studio Art Centers International
  • Syracuse University
  • University of North Carolina-Asheville

Funding Body

  • Florida State University, Tallahasse, Dip. Studi Classici, U.S.A


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