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Excavation

  • Panificio I 12, 1-2
  • Pompei
  • Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeianorum
  • Italy
  • Campania
  • Naples
  • Pompei

Summary (English)

  • In this bakery, the fourth and final campaign took place in the mill-room, around the oven and in the room housing the mixing/kneading machine. The elements uncovered this year have provided evidence for a far more reliable chronology, and unified the excavations in all three rooms.
    The original phase of the house – not yet dated – was only glimpsed in the mill-room with the discovery of a cistern-head. After a first collapse of the vault, the cistern was filled in. During these first phases there was a channel running the length of the house.
    The bakery was only installed in a later phase, in the Tiberian era (terminus post quem 22 A.D. provided by a coin find). In its first phase, the bakery comprised two mills and a shop/workshop. The setting up of the bakery required some structural changes: two rooms were converted into a single space, a column substituting the razed wall. It is likely that the room to the south-east of the mills housed the kneading machine at this time. The oven, without a partition wall, was situated in the back of the house, and to the south there was a garden.

    Around about the time of the 62/63 A.D. earthquake, the restructuring work came to a halt in order to make the necessary repairs to the mill-room. There, two rooms were excavated down to the levels of the earlier eruptions, perhaps in order to check on the state of the foundations following the quake. Subsequently, a third mill was added to the north of the first two, following the obliteration of the shop/workshop facing onto the via dell’Abbondanza. The mill-room was altered by the addition of a column. To the south, the garden was obliterated and in its place a latrine, a room for the kneading machine, a collection point for rainwater and possibly an animal stall were created. The oven was enlarged, perhaps rebuilt, with the construction of a partition wall, which required an alteration in the line of the small drainage channel. To the north, plumbing relating to a lead boiler in the new oven was added.

    The final phase, probably in the second half of the 70s A.D., saw a new increase in the bakery’s milling capacity: the dividing wall between the main room and room 3 was demolished and a fourth mill was added, but without the usual basalt floor. Perhaps at the same moment, the kneading room was enlarged; the preparation tables were rearranged thus creating more places for dough preparation.

  • Nicolas Monteix - Université de Rouen 

Director

  • Nicolas Monteix - Université de Rouen

Team

  • Cécile Hartz - Université de Paris-I
  • Eloïse Letellier - École normale supérieure, Paris
  • Lorraine Garnier - IRAA-Université de Provence
  • Nicolas Morand - Università di Rouen
  • Olivier Mignot
  • Ophélie Candelier - Università di Rouen
  • Sandra Zanella - Université de Paris-I
  • Sanna Aho - Università di Helsinki
  • Véronique Matterne - CNRS
  • Nicolas Monteix - Université de Rouen
  • Arnaud Coutelas - ArkeMine
  • Samuele Ranucci - Università di Perugia
  • Laëtitia Cavassa - Centre Jean Bérard

Research Body

  • Centre Jean Bérard
  • Università di Rouen
  • École Française de Rome

Funding Body

  • Centre Jean Bérard
  • Groupe de Recherches en Histoire
  • École Française de Rome

Images

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