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  • Area sacra di S. Omobono
  • Roma
  •  
  • Italy
  • Latium
  • Rome
  • Rome

Credits

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Monuments

Periods

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Chronology

  • 1500 BC - 1900 AD

Season

    • The first campaign of excavation and recording took place in May-July 2010 as part of the pluri-annual agreement between the Superintendency of Rome , the University of Calabria and the University of Michigan, for the investigation and recovery of the archaeological area of S. Omobone. Following a preliminary phase of cleaning, recording and drawing of the previously excavated stratigraphy, excavations were undertaken in the western sector of the area. In particular, six trenches were opened in correspondence with the lacunae present in the paving of tufa slabs dating to the Republican period. The aim was to check the stratigraphic sequence and gain an understanding of the entity of the previous excavations. Therefore, three trenches (A1, A2, A5) were opened in the area in front of the cella of the west temple, one along the northern stylobate (A3) and two (F4, F6) in the area between the stylobates. The first four trenches were in places that had been investigated by A.M. Colini and subsequent researchers, however they provided the opportunity for an analytical documentation of the stratigraphy. Moreover, in trenches A1 and A2 some sections of the stratigraphy were examined that had not been touched by previous interventions. In the same trenches core samples were taken at greater depth. All three trenches were back-filled for conservation. In trench A3 work was interrupted at a shallow depth when the continuation of the Republican tufa paving was found in situ. The remaining trenches, of which F6 remains to be finished, uncovered pits and structural elements (wells) datable to post-antique phases. The excavations were flanked by conservation work and the burying of some features for conservation.
    • The second excavation season on the site of S. Ombono, run by the Rome Superintendency, the University of Michigan and the University of Calabria, took place between May-July 2011. The fieldwork aimed to resolve a number of problems relating to stratigraphy and chronology, concentrating on the two Republican temples and the area in front of them. The southern sector of the cella in the west temple (A7) was investigated together with a deposit of limited extension, preserved to the exterior, which had been disturbed by earlier excavations (A8 and A12). Inside the cella, levels pre-dating the 3rd century B.C. restructuring were identified. In the area between the two stylobates (still visible), the stratigraphy below two large travertine blocks was excavated. Although very limited in extension, it was of significance for the phases obliterating the Republican floor (F14). Cleaning was undertaken in the area in front of the west temple in order to show up the stratigraphic relationships (F9, E13). In the area of the eastern temple, work continued with the re-examination and, in part, the excavation of the old sector VIII, here denominated D19. A large trench was also opened in correspondence with an area occupied by an imperial taberna (D11). The entire area is periodically cleaned and cleared of weeds. General maintenance work is also carried out. Part of the stone material has been organized and a number of unsafe features stabilized.
    • The investigation continued in various sectors, some of which were partially excavated in previous years. The trench inside the _cella_ of the west temple (A7) was deepened until it reached the substantial clay layer already identified by core sampling last season. Work also continued in trench D10, ex sector VIII of the old excavations. Here, a large amount of time was dedicated to documenting the sections and the revision of what had been done during previous interventions. A number of layers were then removed with the aim of preparing the area for further in-depth excavation next season. This intervention made it possible to clarify and link the data from the Gjerstad excavations and subsequent excavations with the new evidence in the western sector of the podium. In trench F14, situated between the two visible stylobates, the excavation of the stratigraphy underlying two large travertine blocks, removed for safety reasons during the previous campaign, was completed. In trench F19, south of the southern stylobate, a floor of _capellaccio_ marble slabs came to light beneath about 40-50 cm of modern fill. The interventions were intensified in the southern part of the podium, where the excavation of D11 continued with the result that the walls of the imperial _taberna_, situated in the podium’s south-eastern corner, were identified. Three adjacent trenches were dug in the central part of the podium, in area where patches of the _capellaccio_ paving were missing. In all trenches, pits were emptied that were probably the result of Colini’s excavations, and the stratigraphy preserved in their sections was examined. Another trench was opened in the south-western part of the podium (F20), also in correspondence with a gap in the paving. The modern stratigraphy was removed (material from the old excavations) revealing several blocks of _capellaccio_ , which appeared to constitute a western limit of some sort that remains to be defined. The cleaning and analysis of the stratigraphy and later interventions was undertaken in sector E18 and the area south of the temple podium.
    • The main objective of this 4th campaign was to continue last season’s work and re-examine the trenches dug during previous excavations. The new interventions took place in several sectors above the podium of the Republican temples and the area to its east. In particular, the excavation of sector D (ex sector VIII of the old excavations) continued and reached archaic levels. _Sondages_ were opened in the southern part of the podium where unfortunately the stratigraphy had been cut by the earlier excavations (F20, F23, F24, E13a, E13b). A cavity created in the front part of the podium revealed stratigraphy post dating the 13th-14th centuries A.D. (E13). New interventions took place at the south-eastern corner of the excavation, to the exterior of the Republican podium and in correspondence with the _tabernae_ of imperial date. In fact, two sectors were opened, denominated C22 East and C22 West. The aim was to gain a better understanding of the topography around the podium, particularly in relationship to the question of the location of the Porta Triumphalis. The intervention in trench D10 required a substantial technical and organisational commitment, which brought to light a portion of the west side of the archaic temple and the related stratigraphy. At the end of the season, the excavated area was completely back filled for reasons of safety and preservation. Other trenches were also filled, in particular the cavities that had been left open by earlier excavators, notably trenches VII/IX that were back filled to the top of the podium’s perimeter wall
    • This was the fifth excavation campaign and saw the continuation of work in some areas and the opening of new _sondages_. Exploration continued around the _cella_ of the west temple (trench A7) where the stratigraphy was documented down to the last course of the _cella_ foundation wall. Limited interventions also continued in trenches F20E and C22E. New excavations took place in the area of the church of S. Ombono, where the stratigraphy that had emerged in previous excavations was cleaned and recorded (B25), and a _sondage_ opened at the centre of the apse (B26). Three other _sondages_ were opened (E28, E29, E31) in the area south of the podium, and _sondage_ D30, was opened to its east. In these areas, only surface cleaning and the recording of the structures and layers that emerged was necessary. Trench D30 was in an area investigated by the old excavations in sectors V, VII, and IX, but only in relation to the upper layers of the stratigraphy. Of these, further excavation will only be necessary in trench E 29 and perhaps D 30. The excavation of the stratigraphy in trench E27 was completed. Once the investigations in sectors A7, E27, E28, and E31 were completed, the trenches were back-filled. The excavation of trench A7, mainly dug below the level of the water table, required a substantial technical and organisational effort, but led to the recovery of a stratigraphic sequence ranging from the 3rd century B.C. to the first phase of the podium. Inside the church, the removal of the material from the old excavations revealed stratigraphy and structures relating to the earlier church of S. Ombono. In trench E27, a sequence relating to a dump containing materials dating to the 12th-13th centuries was investigated.

Bibliography

    • F. Coarelli, 1988, Il Foro Boario dalle origini fino alla fine della repubblica, Roma.
    • G. Pisani Sartorio, 1995, s.v Fortuna et Mater Matuta, Aedes Lexicon Topographicum Urbis Romae II, Roma: 281-285.
    • A. M. Ramieri, 2004-2005, La chiesa di S. Omobono alla luce delle nuove scoperte, RendPontAc 77: 3-136.
    • A. M. Ramieri, 2005, Chiesa di S. Omobono. Ultimi rinvenimenti, in BCom 106: 399-413.
    • N. Terrenato, P. Brocato, G. Caruso, A.M. Ramieri, H.W. Becker, I. Cangemi, G. Mantiloni, C. Regoli, 2012,The S. Omobono Sanctuary in Rome: Assessing Eighty Years of Fieldwork and Exploring Perspectives for the Future, in “Internet Archeology”, 31, 2012 (http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue31/1/index.html).
    • P. Brocato, N. Terrenato (a cura di),2012, Nuove ricerche nell’area archeologica di S. Omobono a Roma, Arcavacata di Rende.
    • P. Brocato, A.M. Ramieri, N. Terrenato, I. Cangemi, M. D’Acri, L. De Luca, M. Giovagnoli, G. Pizzitutti, C. Regoli, 2012, La ripresa delle ricerche nell’area archeologica di S. Omobono a Roma, in “Mediterranea” IX: 9-56.