logo
  • Via Appia Antica, V. E VI miglio
  • Roma
  •  
  • Italy
  • Latium
  • Rome
  • Rome

Credits

  • failed to get markup 'credits_'
  • AIAC_logo logo

Monuments

Periods

  • No period data has been added yet

Chronology

  • 400

Season

    • The team from the Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands) dug two trenches and surveyed a stretch of the via Appia Antica at the height of the Villa dei Quintili (V mile). The work was a follows: 1) Trench put in between the two tumuli, the so-called tombs of the Orazii, dug in order to establish their exact perimeter and chronology and to collect other related data 2) Trench positioned inside a Republican wall built of squared tufa blocks, part of the so-called Republican _ustrinum_ 3) Inventory of the archaeological remains situated in the sector in question 4) 3D reconstruction from digital photographs In 2010, surface cleaning had taken place including the removal of a layer of asphalt partially covering the area. A 12 x 4 m trench was opened, which at first exposed an illegal dump of modern rubble. Below this, part of the _opus caementicium_ base was exposed along both tumuli. Between the tumuli was a small _opus reticulatum_ wall, probably late Republican, which may have been the dividing wall between the tombs or part of an unidentified structure. Large stone blocks were also present, perhaps from the perimeter walls of the tumuli. The pottery and other finds indicated a 1st century B.C. or 1st century A.D. date. There were no finds from between the late antique period and the 1900s. Directly below the modern ground surface, to the east of the wall, were the remains of a _columbarium_, which appeared to abut the older wall. The upper part of a series of jar embedded in mortar forming a counter structure was exposed. Further excavation is necessary to establish its precise nature and chronology. The finds from the upper layer gave a 2nd century A.D. date. On the west side, the soil seemed to be sterile apart from some fragments from marble blocks, only a few of which with decorative elements such as dentils, and statue parts. This was clearly material collected and broken up for use in a limekiln. Below these blocks, heaped together with stones and pieces of basalt, was a layer of ash and pottery of imperial date. Another _columbarium_ was situated to the north of the wall, part of its _opus spicatum_ floor and a threshold on the west side, visible on the surface by the wall separating the public land from the private properties. The _columbarium_ may have been formed by two adjoining chambers. As with the other, due to the mass of material covering it, excavation of the first layer remains to be completed. The inventory continued the work of 2009 and 2010, mapping the monuments using DGPS, photographs and drawings. The aim is to produce an archaeological map of the area, which could be used as the basis for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the Via Appia in the Roman suburb. Three-dimensional documentation was made of some monuments, which can be inserted into the GIS system and could be used for scientific and educational purposes.
    • This year’s investigations undertaken by the Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (The Netherlands) extended both excavation areas and continued the survey begun in 2011 along the Via Appia at the height of the Villa dei Quintili (V mile). The following work was completed: 1) Excavation between and behind the two tumuli known as the tombs of the Orazii, in order to establish the precise perimeter and chronology of the northern tumulus and extent of the restoration carried out by Luigi Canina in the 19th century. 2) Excavation around the Republican wall built of regular tufa blocks. 3) Inventory of the archaeological remains present on the stretch of road under investigation 4) 3D reconstruction made from digital photographs. Two trenches were put in at the northern tumulus, so-called “degli Orazi” (1). In the first, the _opus caementicum_ base found in 2011 was followed. The perimeter of the tumulus was seen to be much smaller than it appears. The second trench was put in to the west of this tumulus that is to the rear with respect to its position on the Via Appia. Here, a curvilinear structure was exposed which may have been part of the tomb’s entrance, together with the inhumation of a male juvenile dated by a coin of Antoninus Pius to the second half of the 2nd century A.D. or later (fig. 1). The pottery and other finds indicated that the first construction phase dated to the 1st century B.C. or 1st century A.D. and that it was in use until the 2nd century A.D. There were no finds for the period between the late antique and the 20th century. The trenches, begun in 2011, on either side of the Republican wall built of tufa blocks on a north-south alignment were deepened (2). The wall’s continuation, both to the north and south, was exposed. Before the northern continuation of the wall, excavation of the _colombarium_ discovered in 2011 continued. Several levels corresponding with various building phases were identified, which the pottery and tile/brick stamps date to the 2nd century A.D. The inventory (3) continued the work of those undertaken 2009 and 2011 and consisted of mapping the monuments with DGPS, photographic and graphic documentation. The primary aim is the creation of an archaeological map of the area that may be used as a base for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the Via Appia in the _suburbium_ of Rome. A grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research meant work continued from October 2012 on a survey of the areas adjacent to this stretch of the Via Appia, which is being carried out by a team from the Dutch Institute in Rome. The Università Libera of Amsterdam undertook geophysical investigations. Other partners in the project are the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma and the German Istitute of Archaeology in Rome. The project’s name is “Mapping the Via Appia”.
    • Excavators from Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands) enlarged both trenches and continued the surface survey begun in 2011 and 2012 along a stretch of the via Appia next to the Villa dei Quintili (V mile). The following work was carried out: 1) A trench was dug behind the two tumuli known as the tombs of the Horatii, in order to establish the exact perimeter and chronology of the northern tumulus and of the restoration undertaken by Luigi Canina in the 1800s; 2) A trench was put in around the so-called ‘Republican’ wall made up of regular tufa blocks; 3) An inventory was made of the finds recovered; 4) A 3D reconstruction based on digital photographs was created. A large trench was dug behind the north tumulus of the Horatii, on the right side with respect to its position on the via Appia (1). Here, in 2012, a curvilinear structure was exposed that was difficult to interpret. In 2013, this trench was extended to the north, west and south, partly on the basis of the results of a georadar survey undertaken by the team from the British School at Rome. The excavation revealed the perimeter wall to the west of the original tumulus with small semicircular wall inside it. The position further east of the present tumulus with respect to the newly discovered perimeter wall seemed to indicate that the monument was reconstructed by Luigi Canina in the 1800s in a position that was closer to the via Appia than it had been originally. The pottery and other finds indicate a date for the first construction phase in the 1st century B.C. or 1st century A.D. and use until the 2nd century A.D. There were no finds relating to the period between the late antique to the 1900s. Work continued in the trench (2) on both sides of the N-S tufa block Republican wall (opened in 2011). Excavation continued of the columbarium found in 2011 and several levels corresponding with various building phases were exposed. These were dated by the pottery and brick/tile stamps to the 2nd century A.D. The other columbarium situated in front of the tufa block wall contained funerary jars with the remains of cremated bones, a small jug and three lamps, almost all intact. A bronze As of Domitian in the lowest level gives a _terminus_ _post_ _quem_ of 81 A.D. The inventory (3) continued the work undertaken in 2009 and 2012 and consisted of the mapping of the monuments using DGPS, photography and drawing. The main aim is the creation of an archaeological map of the area under examination that will provide the base for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the via Appia in the _suburbium_ of Rome. For the first time, some of the monuments were recorded in 3D (4). These will be inserted into the GPS system and may provide the base of both a scientific and popular view of the via Appia.
    • Mapping the Via Appia 2014 Project The project has been developed by a team from the Dutch Institute in Rome (Jeremia Pelgrom). Funding from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research made it possible to continue surveying the terrain adjacent to this stretch of the via Appia. Geophysical surveys were carried out by the Libera Università, Amsterdam (Henk Kars and Stevens Soetens). Other partners in the “Mapping the Via Appia” project are the Archaeological Superintendency for Rome (Rita Paris) and the German Archaeological Institute in Rome (Ortwin Dally). The team extended the trenches and continued the surveying begun in 2011, 2012, and 2013 on the stretch of the via Appia between the modern via Erode Atticus and via del Casal Rotondo (V and VI mile). The following work was undertaken: 1) Trenches excavated around the two tumuli called the ‘tombs of the Horatii’, dug in order to establish the precise perimeter and chronology of the north tumulus and the precise nature of the interventions carried out by Luigi Canina in the 19th century. 2) A trench in front of the north tumulus in the space between the Via Appia and the tomb itself. 3) Inventory of the archaeological finds along this stretch of the Appia. 4) 3D reconstruction based on digital photographs. Several trenches were dug round the northern tumulus including one quite large one on the south-west side (1; figs. 1-2), with the aim of establishing the plan of its foundations and perimeter wall. This trench was a continuation of the 2013 trench dug to the rear of the tumulus with respect to the via Appia. Several sections of the original tumulus’ perimeter wall were identified together with 12 semicircular internal walls, four or five more than those shown in Luigi Canina’s reconstructions. The heads of four radial walls running to the centre of the tumulus were also documented, which had not appeared on any plans or reconstructions to date. No evidence was found that could be used to establish a date for the construction. The investigation of the tumulus provided confirmation of what was suggested in 2013 regarding Canina’s quite extensive interventions in the 1950s. Canina had raised the monument about four metres above ground level and moved it several metres to the east, that is towards the via Appia with respect to its original position. In trench 2, dug between the tumulus and the via Appia, part of the ancient sidewalk, probably on two levels was uncovered. The inventory of the archaeological remains (3; fig.3) continued work done between 2009 and 2013 and involves the mapping of monuments using DGPS, photographic and drawn documentation. The primary aim is to create an archaeological map of the area in question, which may serve as the basis for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the via Appia in the _suburbium_ of Rome. The 3D documentation (4) of the monuments adjacent to the via Appia itself as well as those in the hinterland, begun in 2013 and refined this season, is also linked to this work. It will be put into a 3D GIS system which is currently being developed, in the hope that it will be used as a base for both scientific and popular visualisations of this part of the via Appia.
    • Several trenches were opened around the northern tumulus (so-called Tomb of the Orazii), extending those excavated in 2013 and 2014. Work concentrated on the east side of the northern tumulus, in the sector close to the road (1). Here various levels of beaten surfaces were excavated, perhaps relating to different phases of the sidewalk along the main stretch of the road. The foundation of the _opus_ _caementicium_ perimeter wall was reached to the west of the northern tumulus (2). This foundation projected from the wall and was situated at almost two metres below the top of the wall itself. Small irregular fragments of travertine, with a smooth upper surface, were embedded in the top of the foundation. Thus far, no evidence has been found that gives a date for the construction of the tumulus. Cleaning was carried out on the walls visible around the funerary monument denominated ‘Laterizio Due’ (3), also situated at the V Mile, on the east side of the via Appia to the north of Santa Maria Nova. This work was undertaken in order to gain a better understanding of the various ancient, late antique and medieval phases and their stratigraphic relationships. This season, inventory work (4) continued that carried out between 2009 and 2014 consisting of mapping the monuments using DGPS, photography and drawings. The aim is to create an archaeological map of the area, which can then be used as a base for more detailed analysis of this stretch of the Via Appia in Rome’s _suburbio_ . Linked to this project is the three-dimensional mapping (5) of the monuments adjacent to the via Appia itself and in its hinterland. This will be put into the GIS/SIT system, for which purpose a 3D GIS/SIT has been developed, which forms the basis for the visualisation of this stretch of the via Appia both for academic purposes and for use by the general public. With funding from the Dutch CNR (National Research Council) it was possible to continue the survey of the terrain adjacent to the sector of the via Appia in question (6), which is being carried out by a team from the Dutch Institute in Rome (Jeremia Pelgrom). A geophysical survey is also in progress. The Archaeological Superintendency for Rome (Rita Paris) and the German Institute of Archaeology in Rome (Ortwin Dally) also particpate in the “Mapping the Via Appia” project.
    • The team from Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands) extended the trenches and continued the surface survey begun in 2011 on the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Atticus and via del Casal Rotondo (V and VI miles).The following interventions were undertaken: 1) Stratigraphic excavations around the two tumuli, the so-called Tombe degli Orazi, in order to establish the exact perimeter, form and construction of the perimeter wall and the chronology of the northern tumulus, as well as the interventions undertaken by Luigi Canina in the 1800s; 2) Excavation in front of the north tumulus in the space between the via Appia and the tomb itself, north of the 2015 trench; 3) Excavations at the height of the tufa wall (see also trench 2 from 2011-2013), to check whether the sidewalk/kerb found along the north tumulus ‘degli Orazi’ continued towards the north; 4) Inventory of the archaeological finds in the sector in question; 5) 3D reconstruction of the monuments based on digital photographs. The inventory of the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Atticus and via del Casal Rotondo (4) continued the work undertaken from 2009 to 2015 consisting in mapping of the monuments with DGPS, photographs and drawings. The main aim is the creation of an archaeological map of the area in question, that will form the base for more detailed analyses of this stretch of the via Appia in the _suburbio_ of Roma. The three-dimensional documentation (5), begun in 2013 and perfected during this latest campaign, is linked to the inventory. This records the monuments adjacent to the via Appia itself as well as those in the hinterland, which will be inserted into a specifically developed GIS/SIT 3D system, which forms the base for both scientific and popular visualisations of this stretch of the via Appia. The survey of the areas adjacent to this stretch of the via Appia, carried out by a team from the Dutch Institute in Rome, was able to continue with the financial support of the Dutch CNR (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research). Geophysical investigations also took place. Other partners in the “Mapping the via Appia” project are the Archaeological Superintendency for Rome and the German Archaeological Institute in Rome.
    • This season, the team from Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands) extended the excavation trenches and continued the surface survey begun in 2011 along the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Attico and via Casal Rotondo (V and VI miles). The following interventions took place: 1) A trench was opened in front of the north tumulus in the space between the via Appia and the tomb itself, further north than the 2015-2106 trench; 2) A trench was opened between the two tumuli known as the ‘Tombs of the Horatii’ in order to establish the precise perimeter, form and construction of the perimeter walls and the chronologies of both tombs, as well as the excavations carried out by Luigi Canina in the 1800s; 3) Trenches to the west and south of the southern ‘Tomb of the Horatii’; 4) Inventory of the archaeological material along the section of the road being investigated; 5) 3D reconstruction based on digital photographs. In trench 1 work concentrated on the north-east side of the north tumulus, in the area beside the road but further north than the 2016 trench and west of the various beaten surfaces found in 2015-2016, belonging to various phases of the sidewalk along the mains stretch of the road. In the space between the road and the tumulus, the excavation was extended of the structure built abutting the perimeter wall of the tumulus itself, parallel to the road and sidewalk. Pipes for carrying water to the structure and for drainage suggest this was a shop selling water. Tufa bedrock was identified between the tumuli below the foundations of the _opus_ caementicium_ perimeter walls of both (2). It was at a depth of over 3 m below the upper surface of the walls themselves. This confirms the idea that both tumuli were built on the bedrock. To date little evidence has been found which helps to establish the precise dating of the tumuli. The trenches (3) aimed to establish the precise perimeter, form, and construction of the perimeter wall and the chronology of the south tomb, as well as the relationship with the mausoleum to its south and the interventions carried out by Luigi Canina in the 1800s. The inventory of the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Attico and via Casal Rotondo (4) continues that undertaken between 2009 and 2016 and involves mapping the monuments with DGPS, photography and drawing. The first aim is the creation of an archaeological map of the area, which will serve as the base for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the via Appia in the _suburbio_ of Rome, and then the creation of a cultural biography of this section of the road. Linked to this work, and begun in 2013 and perfected during this campaign, is the 3D documentation (5) of the monuments adjacent to the via Appia itself, as well as those in the hinterland, for the development of the GIS/SIT 3D, which forms the base of a scientific and popular visualization of this part of the via Appia. A financial contribution from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research made it possible to complete the surface survey of the areas adjacent to the stretch of the via Appia in question, which was undertaken by the Dutch Academy in Rome. Other partners in the project are the Archaeological Superintendency for Rome and the German Institute in Rome. The project is called “Mapping the Via Appia”.
    • This season, as part of the “Mapping the via Appia” project the trenches were extended and the field survey on the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Atticus and Casal Rotondo (V and VI miles) continued. The following work was undertaken: 1) Excavation immediately north of the northern tumulus, but further west than the 2017 trench; 2) Excavation to the east, west and south of the southern tumulus ‘degli Orazi’; 3) Excavation of the monumental tomb directly south of the southern tumulus ‘degli Orazi’; 4) Recording of all the archaeological remains present in this sector of the via Appia; 5) 3D reconstruction based on digital photographs. Trench 1 mainly concentrated on the north-east side of the north tumulus and the terrain to its north, further west than in 1917 and west of the various beaten earth layers found in 2015, 2016, and 2017. The excavation of the structure built abutting the west perimeter wall of the tumulus itself, parallel to the road and sidewalk, was extended. The foundations of several rooms were exposed and the presence of water supply and drainage pipes suggest this was a shop selling water. Trench 2 aimed to establish the precise outline, shape, and construction of the perimeter wall and dating of the south tumulus, as well as the relationship with the mausoleum to the south of it and the interventions carried out by Luigi Canina in the 1800s. To date no evidence has been found that can be used to establish a precise chronology for the tumuli. Trench 3 revealed the remains of various funerary monuments, all rectangular but of different sizes. Two are datable to the late 1st century B.C. or the early 1st century A.D., one to the 2nd or 3rd century A.D and one to the 4th century A.D. The work to record the archaeological remains on the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Atticus and Casal Rotondo (4) consisted of mapping the monuments with DGPS, photographs and drawings. The main aim is the creation of an archaeological map of the area in question, which will serve as the base for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the via Appia in the suburbs of Rome and eventually a cultural biography of this sector. This season, the 3D documentation (5) of the monuments adjacent to the via Appia itself, and immediately behind it was perfected. This will be used to develop the GIS/SIT 3D, which forms the base of a scientific and popular visualisation of this part of the via Appia.
    • This season, as part of the “Mapping the via Appia” project, the team from the Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands) extended the trenches and continued surface survey begun in 2011 and continued from 2012 to 2018 in the stretch of the via Appia between the modern via Erode Attico and via Casal Rotondo (V and VI mile). The following work took place: 1) Excavation immediately north of the northern tumulus, but further west than the 2018 trench; 2) Excavation to the east, and south of the southern tumulus ‘degli Orazi’; 3) Excavation of the monumental tomb directly south of the southern tumulus ‘degli Orazi’; 4) Recording of all the archaeological remains present in this sector of the via Appia; 5) 3D reconstruction based on digital photographs. Trench 1 mainly concentrated on the north-east side of the north tumulus and the terrain to its north, further west than in 2018 and west of the various beaten earth layers found in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The excavation of the structure built abutting the west perimeter wall of the tumulus itself, parallel to the road and sidewalk, was extended. The foundations of several new rooms were exposed and the presence of water supply and drainage pipes suggest this was a shop selling water. A white and black mosaic floor was also found. Trench 2 aimed to establish the precise outline, shape, and construction of the perimeter wall and dating of the south tumulus, as well as the relationship with the mausoleum to the south of it and the interventions carried out by Luigi Canina in the 1800s. To date no evidence has been found that can be used to establish a precise chronology for the tumuli. Trench 3 revealed the remains of various funerary monuments, all rectangular but of different sizes. Two are datable to the late 1st century B.C. or the early 1st century A.D., one to the 2nd or 3rd century A.D and one to the 4th century A.D. The work to record the archaeological remains on the stretch of the via Appia between the modern roads via Erode Atticus and Casal Rotondo consisted of mapping the monuments with DGPS, photographs and drawings, continuing on from 2018. The main aim is the creation of an archaeological map of the area in question, which will serve as the base for a more detailed analysis of this stretch of the via Appia in the suburbs of Rome and eventually a cultural biography of this sector. This season, the 3D documentation, begun in 2013, of the monuments adjacent to the via Appia itself, and immediately behind it was perfected. This will be used to develop the GIS/SIT 3D, which forms the base of a scientific and popular visualisation of this part of the via Appia.

Bibliography

  • No records have been specified