• Deultum - Tumuli
  • Debelt
  • Deultum
  • Bulgaria
  • Burgas
  • Kameno
  • Trustikovo


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    • EXPLORATIONS OF TUMULUS NO. 4 IN THE NECROPOLIS OF DEULTUM (Petar Balabanov – pbalabanov@nbu.bg) The main part of the embankment in the western half of the tumulus was excavated. In order to level the terrain, a number of small mounds were initially heaped and then evened at 4 m depth from the present top of the tumulus. The small mounds lie on a pavement of stone rubble. Various sherds were found within the tumular embankment above the small mounds. Two inhumation burials of adults were discovered in the northern periphery of the tumulus. The burials were designated with semicircular walls of broken stones, c. 2 m in diameter and up to 60 cm in height. The grave pits were more than 1.90 m in depth and the skeletons were oriented to the west, with hands stretched alongside the bodies. No grave goods were found, but 11 iron nails were driven through each body: one in the skull, two in the temples, two in the shoulders, two in the pelvis, two in the knees and two in the feet. In addition, two child burials were discovered in the northern tumular periphery. The rectangular grave pits are east – west oriented and dug at 4.40 m in depth under the ground level. Each burial contains a bronze coin of Honorius (395 – 423 AD). A large pit, c. 6 m in diameter, surrounded with a circular pavement of stone rubble was uncovered in the central part of the tumulus. Several dozens fragments of ceramic vessels dated to the 3rd – 4th centuries AD were found in the tumular embankment above the pit.
    • EXPLORATIONS OF TUMULUS NO. 4 NEAR DEULTUM (Petar Balabanov – p_balabanov@abv.bg) Sixteen burials were discovered and so, their total number within the tumulus reached 22. Constructions of boulders and broken stones were excavated below three of the primary small mounds incorporated within the tumular embankment. The first construction is situated in the tumular center. Skeletons of adults in a Hocker position were discovered within the first and the second construction, which is located to the northeast of the first one. Single human bones were found in the third construction. The sherds found in the constructions show that they date to the Roman period. The deceased persons were oriented to the west. Four platforms of boulders and broken stones in the southern part of the tumulus and a ritual pit were related to the graves. Single human bones of two individuals (a man and a woman) were found in a small trench dug into the bedrock on the bottom of the ritual pit. Seven burials of the 1st – 2nd centuries AD were discovered in the southern and southeastern part of the tumulus. Three of them were cremations on pyres and contain rich grave goods: a bronze anthropomorphic unguentarium decorated with the faces of Dionysos, Pan and Silenos, a pair of gold earrings and an open-work gold pendant, two bronze strigiles (one of them decorated), glass and terracotta unguentaria, etc. The coins found in the graves allow us to date the burials between AD 96 and 150. The other four graves excavated in the same part of the tumulus were inhumations and date between AD 70 and 170. Four inhumation burials were explored in the northern part of the tumulus. The deceased were rested in burial pits with their heads oriented to the west. Iron nails were driven in the bodies of the deceased in two of the burials: a nail was driven in the crown of the skull and ten nails were symmetrically driven in the both sides of the bodies.
    • EXPLORATIONS OF TUMULUS NO. 4 AT DEULTUM (Peter Balabanov – p_balabanov@abv.bg) Two burials were discovered in the central part of the tumulus under the stone pavement. Grave No. 10 lies below the southeastern periphery of the pavement. An inhumation burial in Hocker position lying on the right side, with head pointing to the west, was discovered inside the burial pit. Grave No. 12 lies below the southwestern periphery of the pavement. The deceased was placed in a burial pit, in Hocker position lying on the right side, with head pointing to the west. Ash layer spread over the stone pavement was discovered in square No. 16. A ridge-roofed grave covered with tegulae and oriented southeast – northwest was explored in square No. 25. An inhumation burial of an adult, lying on his back and with head pointed to the northwest, was discovered in a burial pit, oriented southeast – northwest, located to the north. The burial cuts an earlier grave pit containing an inhumation burial in Hocker position. A burial of a child was explored in a grave pit, oriented east – west, in square No. 16. Another inhumation burial of a child, oriented southeast – northwest, was discovered in square No. 65. Five single-type graves (shallow burial pits dug into the ground) were discovered below the stone constructions in the northern part of the tumular embankment. Four of the burials contained deceased persons in Hocker position, while one of them was decapitated. The fifth burial contained a young person lying on his back with hands stretched alongside the body. Four ritual pits were explored. One of the pits contained human bones of two adults, while another two contained hand-made sherds. The burials dug into the ground below the tumulus date to the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages (from c. 1500 to 500 BC), while the rest of the burials date to the 1st – 4th centuries AD. The tumulus was constructed at the end of the 4th century AD.
    • ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS OF TUMULUS NO. 4 NEAR DEULTUM (Petar Balabanov – p_balabanov@abv.bg) The last unexplored segment of the tumular embankment was excavated. It measured 7.40 m by 7 m and was situated in the western periphery of the tumulus. Shreds and fragmentary Roman building ceramics were found. A rectangular construction of uneven stones was documented. The explorations of Tumulus No. 4 were completed.


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