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  • S. Gaetano di Vada
  • Rosignano Marittimo
  • Vada Volaterrana
  • Italy
  • Tuscany
  • Province of Livorno
  • Rosignano Marittimo



  • The Italian Database is the result of a collaboration between:

    MIBAC (Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - Direzione Generale per i Beni Archeologici),

    ICCD (Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione) and

    AIAC (Associazione Internazionale di Archeologia Classica).

  • AIAC_logo logo

Summary (English)

  • In trench CVI, immediately west, of the Small Baths, an enclosure paved with a series of beaten surfaces and related make ups, came to light. It was probably a multi-functional space. The fact that it was delimited by masonry structures that must have supported light-weight walls or roofing and that the southern part (the only area excavated so far) was on the same axis as praefurnium VI and the service entrance to room XIII, further confirms that this area was used by slaves. Its multi-functional use was suggested by the various technical needs required to make the baths function: wood storage, a storeroom for the cleaning and maintenance equipment, storage for “spare parts” (specialised bricks, tiles etc.).

    Such a function, together with the presence of an entrance threshold to the structure, suggests that at least one sector of the area was roofed, while it is possible that the southern part, crossed by the drain from the frigidarium, was open-air. Late Italic pottery recovered from the deepest layer of the foundations dates the construction of the enclosure to the end of the 1st century A.D., thus confirming the general chronology of the Small Baths, that resulted from the stratigraphic data and the layout of the structure itself, which does not respect that of the horrea.

    The 2011 campaign also showed that the small, tile-built drain abutting the closing walls of the room in the southern sector was, very probably, in phase with the large midden US 15 which, to date has produced material dating to the 4th-5th century A.D.

    Trench CIX revealed the structural differences existing between rooms I and XXXVI of the horrea (building B). During the 2010 campaign, a plinth relating to the doorjamb was identified on the south side of room I. If the room had a symmetrical entrance in the north wall then it would have had a maximum opening of about 4 m. The exposure of the foundations of the western wall of room XXXVI (as in room I, also comprising a foundation beam of cobbles and mortar), established the existence of a possible threshold of circa 1.50 m. Therefore, room I (opening circa 4 m) could have been used for the checking and registering of the goods entering and exiting from the warehouse. The presence of such a large entrance could facilitate the transit of the saccarii and movement of goods. The entrance to room XXXVI (opening circa 1.50 m), smaller than those of the other rooms, was adapt for security and control purposes, as may be required by an administrative office or archive.

    In the central area of room I, the excavation uncovered what remained of the floor and its make up, and the foundation trench for the perimeter wall of the horrea. The presence in the perimeter wall of a fragment from a late Republican-early Imperial jar, confirmed the construction date for the complex to be the beginning of the 1st century A.D.

    In trench CVIII (tri-apsidal building G) the area around exedra ‘g’ was excavated, confirming the structure’s chronology to the end of the 1st – first half of the 2nd century A.D.

  • Marinella Pasquinucci - Università degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche del Mondo Antico 
  • Simonetta Menchelli - Università degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche del Mondo Antico 
  • Paolo Sangriso - Università degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche del Mondo Antico  



  • Paolo Sangriso

Research Body

  • Università degli Studi di Pisa, Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche del Mondo Antico

Funding Body

  • Comune di Rosignano Marittimo
  • Fondazione Cassa di Risparmi Livorno
  • Università degli Studi di Pisa


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