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  • Masseria De Carolis
  • Masseria De Carolis



    • The Italian Database is the result of a collaboration between:

      MIBAC (Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - Direzione Generale per i Beni Archeologici),

      ICCD (Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione) and

      AIAC (Associazione Internazionale di Archeologia Classica).

    • AIAC_logo logo

    Summary (English)

    • The 2008 campaign greatly increased knowledge of the site. In fact, five trenches were excavated in diverse parts of the site, which identified ten rooms. The two vaulted features (“g” and “f”), partially investigated in 1988, were completely excavated and identified as a praefurnium with a long furnace (probably for the combined use of metal boilers – aenea – and testudo alveolorum), steps leading to the furnace floor and three openings, two in the east wall (one providing access to room “f”) and one in the north wall. The praefurnium heated the calidarium “e”, where suspensurae were present (partially excavated). The vaulted feature “f” had a single access in the west wall and was also a praefurnium, with two small furnaces, one on the south side, the other to the east. The rooms “d” (partially excavated), “c” and “b” were situated to the south of the two praefurnia and had suspensurae. Moreover, room “c” also preserved the hypocaust floor, collapsed in the central part before the eruption, and the first row of flue tiles. Room “b” was probably the tepidarium, as it received heat in an indirect form, via an opening in the hypocaust connecting it to room “d”. It was also linked by a passageway to room “a”, which was probably in origin the frigidarium. In the north-east sector of the site there are three rooms yet to be investigated and of uncertain function.

      The phases of the vulcanoclastic fill identified in 2007 were confirmed and the directions of the lava flows were identified, the main one from the east (Somma-Vesuvio) towards west, the second from north towards the south, with the consequent thinning of the eruptive matter and the refinement of the material.

      All occupation layers date to the 5th century A.D., although in some cases the presence of residual 2nd and 3rd century material was noted. This probably corresponded to the removal of floors in many of the rooms, leading to the disturbance of the foundations. However, excavation below foundation level showed a thick ashy layer identified as that of the Vesuvian eruption of 79 A.D. The vulcanologists interpretation was confirmed by the presence of pottery and frescoes dating to the 1st century A.D., both above and below the ash layer.

      The terminus post quem provided by the ash of 79 A.D. further supports – together with the residual material in the 5th century contexts – the dating of the complex to the 2nd-3rd century A.D. It is still unclear whether the bath complex was autonomous or connected to a residential villa.

    • Girolamo F. De Simone - St. John’s College, University of Oxford  


    • Antonio De Simone - Università Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli
    • Roger T. Macfarlane - Brigham Young University
    • Umberto Pappalardo - Università degli Studi "Suor Orsola Benincasa" di Napoli


    • Caterina Serena Martucci
    • Emilia Allevato - Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
    • Gaetano Di Pasquale - Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
    • Monica Lubrano - Università Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli
    • Rossella Cannella - Università Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli
    • Yvona Trnka-Amrhein - Harvard University
    • Annamaria Perrotta - Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
    • Claudio Scarpati - Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

    Research Body

    • Brigham Young University
    • Università "Suor Orsola Benincasa" di Napoli

    Funding Body

    • Comune di Pollena Trocchia


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