• S. Gaetano di Vada
  • Rosignano Marittimo
  • Vada Volaterrana
  • Italy
  • Tuscany
  • Province of Livorno
  • Rosignano Marittimo


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  • No period data has been added yet


  • 1 AD - 700 AD
  • 900 BC - 800 BC


    • Investigations in the locality of S. Gaetano began in 1982. These brought to light part of _Vada Volterrana_, the most important Roman port on the stretch of coast between _Portus Pisanus_ and _Populonium_, with links to _Volterrae_ as its name suggests. It is probable that the city already had an efficient harbour system in the 7th century B.C., as attested by imported wares from the Mediterranean found at Volterra, however no evidence of this has been documented to date. Vada was also well connected to the road network: the city stood near the Via Aurelia, Etruria’s main coastal road. The Roman city extended from the piazza to at least the outskirts of modern Vada: the limit may have been constituted by several cemetery areas, datable to the 2nd century B.C. and the 2nd-4th century A.D., in the localities of Il Conventaccio and Il Poggetto. The northern sector of the settlement must have reached at least as far as the modern quarter of S. Gaetano. Here, in the late 1st century A.D. a uniform quarter was built, of which two bath complexes (A, D), a _horreum_ (B), an aula ( C ), a monumental fountain (E), a _schola_ (F) and two buildings interpretable as another _schola_ (G) and a _macellum_ (H) have been uncovered. In some areas of this quarter, below the Roman stratigraphy, evidence of the occupation and subsequent abandonment of a hut village (including wooden posts, plaster and impasto vessels) was found. Its chronology falls within the period between the 9th-1st century B.C. The village was covered by a _stratum_ of coastal material which formed following a sudden rise in the sea level. This rise was short-lived however; in the 1st century A.D. structures were built on the newly emerged dunes. The excavation data shows that restructuring was undertaken both in the mid Imperial and late antique periods, following a phase of partial abandonment during which numerous burials occupied part of the structures. One of these dates to the 3rd century A.D., the _terminus post quem_ for the late restructuring, which concords with the pottery and coins found in the layers formed during the successive occupation phase of the buildings. During the 6th century A.D. the area was progressively abandoned and occupied by a necropolis with burials, containing objects of personal ornament, datable to between the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 8th century A.D. This is the same date given by finds from later occupation levels and from the fill of wells and drainage channels. The small bath complex faced west onto the beach and to the east abutted the _horrea_. East of the baths was an open space, interpretable as a _gymnasium_, flanked by a portico (of which the foundations of the pilasters are conserved). In some rooms there were the remains of mosaic paving and marble revetment. The _horrea_ were rectangular in plan, with a central porticoed courtyard. They had 34 _cellae_ arranged symmetrically along the east and west sides and beaten clay floors. The entrance was to the south, on the port side. The structural characteristics and the absence of mineralized or carbonized grain, although excluding their use as _granaria_, suggests that these were warehouses for storing pottery vessels and food stuffs contained in _amphorae_. South-east of the _horrea_ was a square structure Aula C: perhaps a building belonging to one of the _collegia_ connected with the port’s activities. Its foundations were in _opus caementicium_ upon which were traces of the exterior walls, and which were abutted by five pilasters which supported the vaulted roof. Of the Large Baths (D) two _praefurnia_, the _tepidarium_, the _calidarium_, the _laconium/sudatio_, the _frigidarium_, the _gymnasium _and service rooms have been uncovered. All were richly decorated (mosaics, precious marble wall veneers and pavements). A statue of Attis was found, whose iconography is datable to the first half of the 2nd century A.D. and is attributable to a near eastern workshop. A monumental fountain (E), built in _opus caementicium_, was situated to the north-west of the Large Baths. It had a square pool facing north in the direction of the _horrea_ and a crescent-shaped pool to the south facing the porticoed entrance to the baths. Subsequently, this pool was demolished and the square pool raised in height. Structure F was a single room, with the entrance to the east, in the centre of which was a square feature interpretable as an altar or the base of a votive statue. This was surrounded on three sides by an open area and a corridor with tile pavement. On the north and south sides four rectangular rooms opened onto this courtyard. On the eastern side of the portico were two symmetrical _exedra_. Two wells were excavated inside which were animal bones. As regards its function, the presence of elements linked both to cult aspects, reception (courtyard with portico and monumental entrance with exedra and niches) and utilitarian functions (8 rectangular rooms opening onto the courtyard), suggests that it may have been a _schola_ or the seat of a _collegium_. The 2006 campaign extended the investigation of building H (the so-called _macellum_ ). Its well organized plan, was characterized by a large open area where various service activities were located, a central monumental building, and a second structure linked to the latter. The extension of the excavation in the north western sector of building G, perhaps another reception structure (a _schola_ ), revealed two distinct phases. The first of Flavian date was characterized by the presence of an open area and a pool (public fountain?) fed by pressurized piping. In phase two the pool went out of use when a wall was built to support the roof of a portico. At right angles to this covered structure was another, also roofed, as attested by the presence of a sequence of post holes. The structural relationship between building G and complex H suggests that the buildings were constructed around a communal space, with the reception and utilitarian functions typical of an area situated to the rear of a port.
    • Vada Volaterrana, the port of Volterra in the Etruscan and Roman periods, was situated in correspondence with the modern hamlet of Vada. Here, in the locality of S. Gaetano, the area that was situated behind the port is being excavated. The investigations, undertaken in the 1970s by the local Gruppo Archeologico and from 1982 by Pisa University have uncovered a hut village dated to the 9th century lying below the following buildings: Small baths (A) Horrea (B) Building C Large Baths (D) Fountain (E) Schola (F) Building G Building H The plan and function of the bath buildings (A and D), the horrea (B) and the fountain (E) situated by their entrance, were easily interpreted. On the contrary, building C presented considerable difficulties due to its bad state of preservation and the impossibility of investigating the surrounding area. The interpretation of building F as the seat of the collegium, supported by the association of elements linked to cult aspects (altar/votive statue base; sacred pits), scenic/reception elements (monumental entrance and niches with statues; central courtyard with portico) and public/utilitarian elements (square rooms on the north and south sides). The function of building G also seems to be linked to administration and reception and/or cult use. Complex H showed sought-after monumentality and scenic effects. In its external courtyard productive and/or service activities took place. A kiln/dryer and a tile paved tank were found here. The quarter was constructed as a substantially cohesive unit from the 1st century A.D. onwards. Over the centuries the buildings underwent changes in use, rebuilding and restructuring. It was definitively abandoned in the first decades of the 7th century A.D. Intense commercial activity is documented throughout the life of the quarter. Goods from across the entire Mediterranean basin arrived here and local products destined for overseas trading also converged here.
    • In 2009 the investigations made a structural check on the buildings present in the northern ( _Horrea_, building B) and southern (building G) sectors. The need to investigate the route of a drainage channel from the _frigidarium_ of the Small Baths (A) led to the discovery of another drainage structure. Two trenches were opened (trenches CIII and CIV) in order to investigate the natural stratigraphy and thus the relationship between the latest occupation layers and the earliest layers relating to the levels of marine sedimentation. In the _horrea_ (trench C) the stratigraphic excavation revealed the foundation trench for the well, situated inside room VI. This structure, which collected the water filtering through the stones forming the well-shaft, cannot be dated as the fill of the foundation cut did not contain any diagnostic material. However, as this was a fresh water well in a structure which must have made ample use of it, it is logical to suppose that its presence is to be dated to a period in which the provision and draining of water was not guaranteed and, therefore, to the early medieval period, when the area behind the port of San Gaetano was gradually falling into disuse. The excavation of trench CV revealed a radically different structural situation between the two sectors of the exedra of the Small Baths. In fact, the southern sector presented deep substantial ‘a sacco’ foundations and walls with a stone facing and cement core, the northern sector had shallow foundations and was less accurately constructed. These results suggest a spatial “specialisation” of the external areas of the bath complex, reflected by the structural differences. Trench CVIII was opened with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the construction phases of building G, given its particular tri-apsidal plan (apses ‘e’, ‘f’ and ‘g’). The investigation, concentrated on the points where the apses met the perimeter walls, revealed elements of notable interest from a structural point of view (the apses clearly appeared in phase with the rest of the building). Trench CVII and the extension of trench LXXXIX provided new data regarding the spatial organisation to the north of building G. Although badly preserved, the continuity of the traces of previously identified structures linked to the restructuring of building G and complex H in the full Imperial period, suggests that such interventions widely involved the vast external area to the north. Trench CIII confirmed the hypotheses formulated at the end of the preceding campaign relating to the natural stratification of the coastal dunes, in the shelter of which the archaeological site of San Gaetano di Vada was set up. In the eastern sector of the trench the presence (unfortunately seen only in section) of a stratigraphy of Roman date, which at the moment cannot be more accurately dated, was of great interest. Trench CIV excluded the presence of other ancient structures in the investigated area. The presence of archaeological material can be ascribed to the dispersion/infiltration of finds from adjacent structures. These interventions did not uncover traces of the prehistoric village for which there was evidence in a number of other sectors, always at a substantial depth below the Roman structures.
    • In 2010 investigations were undertaken in the northern sector of the area, where the excavation continued in the area west of the Small Baths (building A, trench CVI). A trench was opened in order to carry out a structural check (CIX) which looked at the entrance to the _horrea_ and rooms I, II, XXXV and XXXVI (building B). In the southern sector investigations relating to the construction phases of building G continued (trench CVIII). Trench CVI aimed to define the structuring of the drain from the _frigidarium_ pool brought to light at the end of the 1970s by the local Archaeology Group. This drainage system was seen to function with a system of sluices, formed by fragments of marble cornices reused for this purpose. The excavation, begun in the previous season, identified another drainage system to the exterior of the Small Baths. This was at a right-angle to the _frigidarium_ drain and its layers of collapse were cut by agricultural activities. An interesting discovery in the north part of the trench was a wall, parallel to the perimeter wall of room VI of the Small Baths and positioned on the same axis as the channel identified in 2009. The presence of a threshold and patches of beaten floor surfaces and related make ups, suggests the presence of a series of structures to the west of the bath building. Trench CIX showed the structural differences existing between rooms I, II and XXXVI of the _horrea_ (building B). In room I the plinth relating to the south door jamb of the entrance was present at foundation level. The most interesting element was constituted by the presence of US 6, a structure on a north-south alignment, constituted by cobbles bonded with mortar, interpretable as the ‘upside down beam’ foundation for the threshold of room I. The presence of the south door jamb makes it possible to suggest the existence of a symmetrical jamb on the north side and to calculate a maximum width of about 4m for the entrance to room I, as the width of the room is about 5.4 m. In room XXXVI, on the foundation of the closing wall there was no plinth or threshold in the stretch that was excavated, thus it may be suggested that it had a smaller entrance. If the entrance was symmetrical it would have a maximum width of 2 m given that room XXXVI is also 5.40 m wide. This difference in the size of the openings suggests that these rooms facing the warehouse entrance (I, II and XXXVI) had different functions: -Room I (maximum opening about 4 m): possibly a room used for checking and registering the goods entering/leaving the warehouse. The presence of such a wide entrance would facilitate the transit of the _saccarii_ and the movement of goods. -Room II (opening about 2.80 m): living space for the horrearii? -Room XXXVI (estimated maximum opening 2 m): the small door suggests the necessity for security and control such as required by an administrative office or archive. Trench CVIII was opened in order to define the construction phases of building G, given its particular tri-apsidal plan (apses ‘e’, ‘f’ and ‘g’). The investigation, which concentrated on the joins between the perimeter walls and internal walls of rooms ‘b’, ‘c’ and ‘d’, recorded data of notable interest. The dividing wall closing room ‘b’ to the east resulted as being in phase with the perimeter walls, whilst the walls of rooms ‘c’ and ‘d’ can be attributed to a phase datable to the 4th-5th century A.D., as shown by the stratigraphic relationships and the finds. Therefore, in confirmation of the data acquired during the 2009 campaign, the foundations of building G can be placed within a chronological horizon limited to the end of the 1st century A.D., or more probably, the beginning of the 2nd century A.D., whilst a radical spatial reorganisation occurred in the 4th-5th century A.D. This was probably linked to the other restructuring which took place in the area situated north of building G and the nearby complex H on which work has yet to be completed.
    • In trench CVI, immediately west, of the Small Baths, an enclosure paved with a series of beaten surfaces and related make ups, came to light. It was probably a multi-functional space. The fact that it was delimited by masonry structures that must have supported light-weight walls or roofing and that the southern part (the only area excavated so far) was on the same axis as praefurnium VI and the service entrance to room XIII, further confirms that this area was used by slaves. Its multi-functional use was suggested by the various technical needs required to make the baths function: wood storage, a storeroom for the cleaning and maintenance equipment, storage for “spare parts” (specialised bricks, tiles etc.). Such a function, together with the presence of an entrance threshold to the structure, suggests that at least one sector of the area was roofed, while it is possible that the southern part, crossed by the drain from the frigidarium, was open-air. Late Italic pottery recovered from the deepest layer of the foundations dates the construction of the enclosure to the end of the 1st century A.D., thus confirming the general chronology of the Small Baths, that resulted from the stratigraphic data and the layout of the structure itself, which does not respect that of the horrea. The 2011 campaign also showed that the small, tile-built drain abutting the closing walls of the room in the southern sector was, very probably, in phase with the large midden US 15 which, to date has produced material dating to the 4th-5th century A.D. Trench CIX revealed the structural differences existing between rooms I and XXXVI of the horrea (building B). During the 2010 campaign, a plinth relating to the doorjamb was identified on the south side of room I. If the room had a symmetrical entrance in the north wall then it would have had a maximum opening of about 4 m. The exposure of the foundations of the western wall of room XXXVI (as in room I, also comprising a foundation beam of cobbles and mortar), established the existence of a possible threshold of circa 1.50 m. Therefore, room I (opening circa 4 m) could have been used for the checking and registering of the goods entering and exiting from the warehouse. The presence of such a large entrance could facilitate the transit of the saccarii and movement of goods. The entrance to room XXXVI (opening circa 1.50 m), smaller than those of the other rooms, was adapt for security and control purposes, as may be required by an administrative office or archive. In the central area of room I, the excavation uncovered what remained of the floor and its make up, and the foundation trench for the perimeter wall of the horrea. The presence in the perimeter wall of a fragment from a late Republican-early Imperial jar, confirmed the construction date for the complex to be the beginning of the 1st century A.D. In trench CVIII (tri-apsidal building G) the area around exedra ‘g’ was excavated, confirming the structure’s chronology to the end of the 1st – first half of the 2nd century A.D.
    • During the 2012 campaign research centred on the northern sector of the archaeological area. Excavations continued in the area west of building A (Small Baths, trench CVI, room XVII) and a structural re-evaluation of the rooms in building A was made. The enlargement towards the north of trench CVI revealed the plan of room XVII that was connected to building A and situated west of it. The structures forming its perimeter could not have supported masonry walls, but only lightweight structures or roofing. It is suggested that this structure was probably multifunctional, acting as a wood store, shed for tools and ‘spare parts’ (special tiles).This function and the presence of a threshold, suggest that a sector of the area was roofed, while it is possible that the southern part, crossed by the drain from the _frigidarium_, was open air. The extension of the trench also exposed another passageway from room XVII of the baths, which has been reconstructed as an access used by slaves for carrying out structural maintenance. Deepening of the excavation (‘C’) in the north-western corner revealed flooring made up of layers with a sandy or sandy clay matrix overlying a layer of pressed sand containing fragments of Italian sigillata. Below this layer was a stratification with a sandy clay matrix which covered the dunal sands, within which was a fragment of Italian sigillata. This data agrees with that from the 2011 campaign and confirms the building chronology of room XVII (end of the 1st-beginning of the 2nd century A.D.). In building A the rooms excavated by the local Gruppo Archeologico between 1975 and 1977 were re-examined. Room I: probable housing for the _testudo_, it presented an _opus caementicum_ base that occupied almost the entire space; cleaning exposed patches of floor make up and it was possible to get a better look at the base itself and of the housing for the terracotta piping that supplied water to room IV. Room II: may be interpreted as a service room relating to the use of the _testudo_; cleaning revealed a number of floor make ups on top of which rested USM 6, a step providing access to the bronze container. Room IV: structurally joining to V (_calidarium_), the room presented two blockings subsequent to its period of use, one towards exedra XVI and the other towards room VI; these were access points for cleaning below the hypocaust floor. Room XIII; the space was obliterated by the construction in an unknown period of a cistern in stone bonded with mortar and with a tile floor. In a corner of the room, the 2012 intervention exposed a stratigraphy relating to a series of beaten floor surfaces and make ups that had been cut by the cistern’s creation. Its foundations also cut several layers of dunal sand at a greater depth with respect to the structure’s perimeter walls.
    • Trenches CXI and CXII revealed a series of structures belonging to at least two buildings. The earlier one (early 1st century A.D.) was only partially intercepted, and the later building (early 2nd century A.D.?) was restructured several times during its occupation that continued until the 6th century A.D. Trench CXI occupies the southern sector of the area; during the 2014 season, the investigations were concentrated in its south-eastern. The removal of the surface levels exposed a series of structures belonging to three rooms; work centred on rooms 2 and 3 (Fig. 1). Room 2 (2.85 x 2.75 m), had wide perimeter walls (0.6 – 0.7 m) built with very roughly hewn stone bonded with mortar. The floor was formed by a sandy layer, a loose make up of pottery and brick/tile fragments, a layer of cobbles and a surface of horizontally placed broken tiles. The pottery recovered dated to the central decades of the 2nd century A.D. The walls uncovered to the south of room 2 date to the same period. In this sector, an earlier structure of broken brick/tile bonded with clay was replaced some time later (period unknown) by the construction of a new room (n.3; 2.6 x 3.2 m). In the late antique period (late 5th-mid 6th century A.D.) a necropolis with earth graves was created. One of the burials, partially bordered by tiles and reused stones, cut the west wall of room 3. A female individual had been buried in a pre-existing grave and the bones of the first individual – except the cranium – were repositioned in its westernmost part (Fig. 2). In trench CXII, a series of walls were exposed below the destruction levels that indicated the presence of two buildings. One had walls built in ashlar blocks of _panchina_ _livornese_ (a type of sandstone) bedded and bonded with mortar. Similarities in construction technique with the _horreum_ present in the northern sector of the site dating to the beginning of the 1st century A.D. make it possible to suggest, with due caution, that this structure dates to the same period. In the second phase (early 2nd century A.D.), this room was incorporated into the main structure, whose walls had a different construction technique: medium to large stones from the river (cobblestones?) bonded with abundant mortar. A covered cistern was created in one of the rooms, probably exploiting spring water. The building had a long life, probably until the late antique period when it was used for funerary purposes: two _enchytrismós_ burials (a child and a badly disturbed burial) and an earth grave containing an adult individual without grave goods (Fig. 4). The grave burials were aligned east-west with the raised cranium to the east, while the two _enchytrismói_ were on a north-south alignment suggesting differences in funerary ritual and period. The finds date this final phase of the building’s use to the 7th century A.D.
    • Two buildings were uncovered in trenches CXI and CXII, I and L, one probably dating to the early 1st century A.D., and a later one that incorporated the preceding structure. The later building dates to between the end of the 1st /early 2nd century A.D. and the 6th/7th century A.D. (fig. 1). Trench CXI occupies the southern sector of the area; during this campaign, the investigations concentrated on the eastern sector of the trench. In room 1, situated in the north-eastern part of the trench, a cobblestone floor was excavated, dated by the finds to the end of the 1st – early 2nd century A.D., symmetrical with the floor in the adjacent room. In a first phase, these rooms constituted a single space that was divided sometime between the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. (fig. 2). A new room (8) was identified in the north-eastern part of the trench, probably added to the main body of the structure in the mid 2nd century A.D. It had a door on the east side and the floors date to between the late 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century A.D. A small necropolis was uncovered in the south-eastern sector. On an east-west alignment, it presented earth graves and “a cappuccina” burials. In addition to the burials excavated in previous seasons, four more burials, of which two in amphorae were dug this year. The first _enchytrismós_ was formed by two Tunisian amphorae (fig. 3), dating the burial to the first half of the 6th century A.D. The second burial was inside a single amphora, probably a Keay 62 type. Trench CXII occupied the northern part of the area; during this season investigations were carried out across the whole trench. In building I, two small bread ovens were identified (fig. 4), cut into the beaten floor surface of the room. Test pits dug in the floor provided evidence showing that the wall dividing the room in two was built in the mid 2nd century A.D. The floors in rooms 6 and 7 and the area outside room 6 were investigated, the finds dating them to between the final years of the 1st and the early 2nd century A.D. There was a large hole in the floor of room 6, caused by the collapse of a section of an _opus_ _latericium_ wall. Inside room 6, the excavation continued of the fill inside the small exedra, which dated its abandonment to the period between the mid 6th century and early 7th century A.D. The investigations (to be completed) revealed the absence of _opus_ _signinum_ in the structure, initially interpreted as a small cistern. The excavation of room 5 (fig. 5) revealed a series of walls that divided the space, whose function remains to be clarified.
    • This season the excavations continued the work begun in 2013-2015. In the southern sector of building I, the walls belonging to a new structure formed by a row of rooms were investigated; the function remains to be defined (Fig. 1). The excavation of the westernmost room (8) was completed. A large quantity of pottery fragments was found in a substantial layer with a sandy matrix, situated at the foundation level of the perimeter walls, which confirmed the dating of this eastern part of building I to between the final decades of the 2nd and the early 3rd century A.D. To the east of room 8, the extension of the excavation area identified two new rooms (9-10). The first was a large rectangular room (Fig. 2), which had a stone threshold with double pivot sockets (Fig. 3). Inside the room, the stratigraphy was intact and related to at least two different floor levels, which will be excavated in 2017. Although only a part of the north and west perimeter walls of room 10 have been uncovered (Fig. 4), which were wider than those of the adjacent room 9 (60 cm), it was possible to identify the presence of a rich decoration of marble slabs on both. Excavation of the small necropolis continued, which was created in the period between the late 5th and mid 6th century A.D. in the area east of buildings 8-10. A grave (n. 5, Fig. 5) bordered by a cordon of stones and tile, containing a female individual was excavated. The position of the long bones – in particular the clavicles – confirmed, as already seen in tomb 1, the use of a shroud. A building was identified in the south-western sector of the port area of Vada Volaterrana, whose construction technique and the pottery from the foundation trench of the perimeter walls suggest dates to the Augustan period. The structure can be attributed to the same phase in which the _horrea_ were built on the site. The building, defined as “I”, was formed by at least two rooms, one of which set up as a _taberna_, as attested by two bread ovens inside the first room (Fig. 6 and 7). The ovens probably remained in use until the area underwent transformations, in which the Augustan building was incorporated into a new structure – called “L” – built after the 70s A.D. (as attested by a coin of Vespasian found in a wall cavity between building I and building L, Fig. 8). In this period, an upper storey was added to building I, evidence for which is the construction of a wall inside the first room that created the housing for a staircase, of which however no trace remained. In this phase, an insulated floor was put into the eastern part of the building, its surface of pressed sand and clay overlay a loose foundation made up of numerous pottery fragments (pots and amphorae). At present, the activities that took place here are unknown, probably storage and/or production of goods that needed protection from humidity.
    • This season, excavation continued in the area south of the bridge leading to the archaeological area. Building L, trench CXI. Work took place in the east sector, where a new part of the building was identified, constituted by a row of rooms aligned south-west/north-east. In the southern sector, a small necropolis with earth graves, “a cappucina” tombs and amphora burials, was identified. Building I, CXII. Work in the north-western and central sectors concentrated on room 1, in which there was a small oven, and rooms 7 and 5, the latter occupied by a late antique tomb. (Fig. 1). _1.1. Building L-Room 9_ This room was east of room 8 with which it communicated. The excavations concentrated on the later phases: several artificial cuts were identified in the layer of broken tile US 50, already identified in rooms 8 and 9. One of the fills contained material datable to between the 5th and mid 7th century. An accumulation of small stones, showing signs of exposure to heat, was arranged in a small circle. Below this was the room’s late floor surface, constituted by numerous tile fragments, at the same level as the layer of tiles US 93 (loose foundation). US 50, dating to between the late 6th and early 7th century, contained fragments of reused marble slabs and the base of a Solomonic column, which perhaps came from the adjacent room 10, whose walls were faced with marble slabs. Therefore, a structure of some importance could have been abandoned and robbed between the 5th and 7th century and the materials partially reuse d in later restructuring. The excavation of the small necropolis, created between the late 5th and mid 6th century A.D. to the south-east of building L continued. Tomb 6 was an infant burial in a Keay 62 amphora, datable to between the late 5th and the first half of the 6th century A.D. An “a cappuccina” burial (tomb 4) attributable to the same phase contained the remains of a male between 35 and 45 years old. _2.1. Building I_ Room 1 Like the _horrea_, this structure was built in _opus_ _quadratum_. It was constructed in the Augustan period, as attested by the chronology of the original floor of room 1, during the first half of the 1st century A.D. Later, it was cut by a small corn-drying oven. It seems likely that the building, situated along the road leading to the _horrea_, was a stopping place for those frequenting the port area. Between the second half of the 2nd century and the first half of the 3rd century, the oven went out of use and the floor was covered by a layer of pressed sand and clay. At the end of the 5th century A.D., the room was again restructured with the construction of a small space probably in relation to the building of an upper storey. Room 7 was characterised by a floor of compact sand and cobblestones on a loose foundation datable to the 2nd century A.D. Below lay another floor surface relating to the construction of building L and dating to between the late 1st and early 2nd century A.D. Room 5 was divided by a partition wall and re-floored. The earth grave of an adult male was cut into this floor and this burial may be coeval with the two _enchytrismòs_ burials in room 7.
    • Trench CXI (building M) In the easternmost part of the excavations (Trench CXI) work continued on the building formed by rooms 8-11, whose first phase dates to between the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D. The excavations in room 10 extended over a surface area of 4.28 x 4.35 m where a late antique occupation phase was identified, which the materials, found within a loose foundation of broken tiles, date to between the late 6th-early 7th century A.D. (Fig. 2). Between the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D., the room had a tile floor boded with mortar, which however was not part of the original structure. The latter dated to the Severan period and had a floor of white and bluish-grey _crustae_, largely robbed at the moment when the floor level in the room was raised. The marble slabs forming the skirting were still _in_ _situ_ in correspondence with the inner faces on the north, west, and south walls, and were partially covered by the tile floor. To the east of room 10 a large opening led into a second room (room 11), that was a pre-existing structure. Although only a limited part of the latter was investigated, it was seen to have a marble floor similar to that in the adjacent room. In a phase that remains to be defined, but post dates the early 3rd century A.D., a wide apse (c. 7 m) was built into the south wall of room 11, which emphasised its function, together with room 10, as a reception area (Fig. 3). Trench CXII (building L) In the central-western sector (trench CXII), the excavations concentrated on room 5 of building L. A series of actions dating to about the beginning of the 3rd century A.D. were identified, which altered the room’s plan - divided in two in the first phase (Flavian period) – and which are probably linked to alterations and/or a change in the building’s function (Fig. 4). Moreover, these actions cut the stratigraphy relating to the pre-Roman occupation of the site (Fig. 5). Numerous fragments of medium and large containers with cordon decoration, probably a local production, were recovered that presented clear traces of a long exposure to fire, and bars of refractory clay used as supports in hearths typical of settlements producing salt. The stratigraphic excavations have therefore shown that room L overlay a site datable to the Bronze-early Iron Age, in which the inhabitants produced salt by boiling salt water. Resti di un insediamento protostorico sulle dune di San Gaetano, al di sotto degli horrea, già erano stati individuati negli anni ’90, costituiti da pali ed intonaco da capanna e vasellame. I dati della campagna 2018 arricchiscono dunque il quadro dei paesaggi di età protostorica. In the 1990s, the remains of a proto-historic settlement were found on the dunes of San Gaetano below the _horrea_. The remains consisted of post and plaster from huts and pottery. The evidence from the 2018 excavations thus adds to the picture of the proto-historical landscape.


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