• Longola
  • Longola


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    • 1500 BC - 580 BC


      • The wetland settlement of Poggiomarino (locality of Longola), situated near the present course of the river Sarno, is an important centre of production and exchange. It is characterised by the presence of numerous “islets” surrounded by canals of varying capacity, partly re-modified by man or by slow moving water basins. The investigation was undertaken by the Superintendency of Pompeii, in several stages in 2000 (Trench 1) and from 2001 to 2006 (Trenches 2A-3B ), over an area of circa 800 m2. Trenches have so far touched levels from the Roman period down to the early Iron age, revealing dwellings and workshops which have made it possible to reconstruct the geo-anthropological dynamics during the course of these periods. The islets, due to the need for dry areas, were progressively expanded using fills contained in formwork and were raised by stratified land reclamation in order to contrast the rising water level, this led to the progressive raising of the floor levels in the huts built on them. The interdisciplinary nature of the research has made it possible to propose several hypotheses for the reconstruction of dwellings, to acquire new data on the provenance of amber and metals through the use of archeometric analyses, to elaborate a chrono-typology for the pottery. The absolute dating of the site, fixed at the moment for several of the construction phases, will be provided by the dendrochronological sequence which is in the course of being processed.
      • In the summer of 2000, during work on the construction of the local water purification plant, an outstanding example of a prehistoric riverside settlement was discovered at Longola di Poggiomarino (NA), a town situated in the upper Sarno valley. This extended across the circa 7 ha entire area that was originally to be the site of the plant, and over adjacent areas. The settlement was occupied from the late middle Bronze Age until the beginning of the 6th century B.C. The site is surrounded by low hills on which stand the modern towns of Striano, San Valentino Torio and San Marzano and the great Iron Age necropoli, whose coeval settlements were unknown prior to the discovery at Longola. From 2001 onwards the settlement, completely submerged by the water-table, was the object of several campaigns of open-area excavation in two adjacent sectors of circa 800 m2 each. So far the investigation has looked at the occupation layers dating from the earliest phase of the early Iron Age (IFe 1A) until the late orientalising period when the site, after having undergone radical structural changes following alluvial silting, was definitively abandoned. The discovery at Longola has thrown much light on the settlement system of the prehistoric villages on the Sarno plain, a system which demonstrates the capacity of the local community to interact with the natural dynamics of the environment by creating a complex system for the reclamation of the original marshy/swampy environment. To date unknown in southern Italy this consisted in the construction of channels embanked with timber palisades, which aided the drainage of the wet depression. The larger channels were also used for transport, linking the different villages in the valley and, probably the coastal strip, judging by the find inside a sort of wet dock, of two “canoes” dug out of single tree trunks, one of which almost 7 m long. Continuous subsidence in the area necessitated the progressive increase in height of the dry areas, the so-called “islets”, through the raising of floor levels using a system of overlying layers of vulcanoclasts (ashy silts and pumice) for drainage purposes. Brushwood, natural fibre mats and even entire lattice walls from huts damaged by “high” water and then remade on a higher level, were used for waterproofing. The dry spaces for occupation between the channels were enlarged using a system of fills, mainly constituted by disused timbers and dumps of various materials, including food leftovers and even the waste products from wine making, contained in formwork made of timber posts and planks fixed vertically in the layers of sand. The huts built on these islets were not only residential but were also used for craft-working activities. The finds of numerous metal, bone, glass paste and amber artefacts, often unfinished or unsuccessfully completed, documented flourishing local specialised crafts which made Poggiomarino one of the regions most important centres. Smelting activity has been documented on the site for the orientalising period by the discovery of a series of furnaces for metal working. Judging by the large number of casting moulds found in the levels of the earliest phase of the early Iron Age this activity was already practised in the preceding period.


      • P.G. Guzzo, 2002, Paesaggio a Pompei fino al 79 d.C., con CD-ROM, Guzzo P.G., Albore Livadie C., Cicirelli C., Di Maio G., L’insediamento perifluviale protostorico di località Longola - Poggiomarino. Ricostruzioni paleoambientali, Atti XLII Convegno di Studi sulla Magna Grecia, Napoli: 447-464.
      • P.G. Guzzo, C. Albore Livadie, C. Cicirelli, 2003, Prima di Pompei. Un insediamento protostorico nel golfo di Napoli, in La Parola del Passato LVIII, II (CCCXXIX): 81-139.
      • C. Albore Livadie, C. Bartoli, G. Boenzi, C. Cicirelli, P.G. Guzzo, 2005, The Poggiomarino River Settlement in the Longola area, in P. Attema, A.J.Nijboer, A.Zifferero (eds.), Communities and Settlements from the Neolithic to the Early Medieval Period, Proceedings of the 6th Conference of Italian Archaeology (Groningen, April 15-17, 2003), BAR International Series 1452(II): 699-705.
      • C. Cicirelli, 2003, Poggiomarino. Il sito perifluviale protostorico scoperto a margine dell’impianto di depurazione, in Rivista di Studi Pompeiani XIV: 74-82.
      • C. Cicirelli (a cura di), 2005, Longola di Poggiomarino. Un insediamento di ambiente umido dell’età del Ferro, folder pubblicato in occasione della XL Riunione Scientifica dell’Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria.
      • C. Cicirelli, C. Albore Livadie, N. Pizzano, 2006, I manufatti in osso, in corno e in avorio dell’insediamento protostorico in loc. Longola (Poggiomarino – Napoli), in Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana, Atti XXXIX Riunione Scientifica, IIPP, (Firenze 25-27 novembre 2004), vol. II, Firenze: 994-998.
      • C. Cicirelli, C. Albore Livadie, M. Boni, 2006, Dati preliminari sui manufatti metallici dell’insediamento protostorico in loc. Longola (Poggiomarino – Napoli), Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana, Atti XXXIX Riunione Scientifica, IIPP (Firenze 25-27 novembre 2004), vol.II, Firenze: 1391-1401.
      • C. Cicirelli, C. Albore Livadie, I. Angelini, G. Artioli, B. Bellintani, 2006, Le ambre di Poggiomarino. Primi risultati delle indagini di caratterizzazione, Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana, Atti XXXIX Riunione Scientifica, IIPP (Firenze 25-27 novembre 2004), vol. III, Firenze: 1601-1607.
      • C. Cicirelli, C. Albore Livadie, 2008, Stato delle ricerche a Longola di Poggiomarino: quadro insediamentale e problematiche, in P.G. Guzzo – M.P. Guidobaldi (a cura di), Nuove ricerche archeologiche nell'area vesuviana (scavi 2003-2006), Atti del Convegno Internazionale, Roma 1-3 febbraio 2007, Roma: 473-487.
      • P. Guzzo, 2007, Paesaggi protostorici, in Id., Storia e paesaggio della città di Pompei, Milano: 23-37.
      • AA.VV., c.s., Poggiomarino I, Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei.
      • C. Albore Livadie, C. Cicirelli, 2003, L’insediamento protostorico in località Longola di Poggiomarino. Nota preliminare. Le indagini di scavo(2000-2002), in AA.VV, Prima di Pompei. Un insediamento protostorico nel golfo di Napoli, La Parola del Passato 58: 88-128.
      • C. Cicirelli, 2007, Longola di Poggiomarino (NA), un importante centro artigianale dell’età del Ferro, in M.L. Nava, A. Salerno (a cura di), 2007, Ambre. Trasparenze dall’antico. Catalogo mostra. Napoli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, 26 marzo-10 settembre 2007, Milano: 215-217.
      • C. Cicirelli, 2007, Poggiomarino, loc. Longola. La campagna di scavo 2006, in RStPomp 18: 192-197.
      • C. Cicirelli, c.s., Le monossili di Poggiomarino, il loro recupero e trattamento conservativo, in Atti I Convegno Nazionale di Archeologia, Storia ed Etnologia Navale, Cesenatico, 4-5 aprile 2008.