FOLD&R Italy Series

Editors: Helga Di Giuseppe, Elizabeth Fentress
Scientific Committee: Gilda Bartoloni, Enrico Benelli, Alessandra Capodiferro, Alberto Cazella, Alfredo Coppa, Michael Crawford, Stefano De Caro, Alessandro Guidi, Paolo Liverani, Alessandra Molinari, Massimo Osanna, Emanuele Papi, Lucia Saguì, Catherine Virlouvet, Giuliano Volpe, Andrew Wallace-Hadrill

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Index for 2019

  • 445 - Erminia Lapadula, Antonietta Di Tursi. 2019. Un frantoio di età lucana nella Valle del Basento Un intervento di archeologia preventiva in Basilicata . On the site of Sant’Antonio in the Ferrandina’s territory (MT), which occupies a hilly area along the Ba-sento valley, a preventive excavation in 2007 as found a lucan oil mill. Below thick colluvial deposits a small quadrangular environment has been identified, open on one side, characterized by the presence of two pressor slabs (arae), the product collection basin (oil), a channel and arbores housing. The ceramic finds returned mainly from the obliteration and abandonment layers of the structures, in particular the black-gloss, banded and plain ware, allow us to date the structure to the second half of the 4th-early 3rd century. B.C. The paper presents the data collected during the 2007 excavations and some preliminary considera-tions. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 444 - Paolo Rondini- Università degli Studi di Pavia, Alberto Marretta - Parco Archeologico Comunale di Seradina – Bedolina, Capo di Ponte – BS. 2019. Il sito protostorico di Dos dell’Arca (BS): la campagna di scavo e docu-mentazione 2018 dell’Università di Pavia (Progetto Quattro Dossi - fase II). In 2015 the University of Pavia started the first phase of the Quattro Dossi (Four Hills) Project, research conducted in the homonymous area in the municipality of Capo di Ponte, at the heart of the UNESCO Site n. 94 “Rock Drawings in Valle Camonica”. A first report was given in this same journal, in 2018. This paper presents the results of the second phase of the project, namely the 2018 excavation and rock art documentation at Dos dell’Arca, a settlement with phases from Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages. The site in question is part of the wider Quattro Dossi area and is of great im-portance for the study of the protohistoric Alps. It had already been partially excavated in 1962 under the direction of Emmanuel Anati. The University of Pavia’s research followed three guidelines: opening new excavation trenches (Saggio C), continuing work in the old unfinished trenches (Saggio B), documenting the stratigraphy in the old finished trenches (Saggio A) in order to shed new light on the findings of 1962, which are almost entirely unpublished to date. The first campaign, presented here, documented a homogeneous and coherent stratigraphic situation, which cumulated a well-established material culture and led to the identification of new engraved figures below archaeological layers. The sec-ond objective of this campaign was to initiate complete documentation, performed with up-to-date methodology, of the engraved rock surfaces located inside and outside the settlement area: in the 2018 fieldwork Rocks n. 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were documented. Three of them are here fully discussed. This work also includes an update on the latest rock art dis-coveries at the site, as well as an iconographic insight on the depictions of hands in Valle Camonica rock art, giving a multidisciplinary overview of the various ramifications of the Quattro Dossi Project, which will continue with campaigns in 2019 and 2020. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 443 - Emanuele Vaccaro-Università di Trento. 2019. Tombarelle (Cinigiano, GR), parte II: le ceramiche tardoromane e medievali . Situated in the township of Cinigiano in the subcoastal area of the Province of Grosseto, Tombarelle was the eighth Ro-man rural settlement excavated by the Roman Peasant Project (RPP). The project, focusing on the lifestyle, economies, architecture and material culture of the Roman rural non-elites, selected Tombarelle for excavation because the surface evidence pointed to its possible function as a nucleated settlement serving as a reference point for smaller rural sites in its hinterland. A recently published paper – Tombarelle 1 – presented the field walking survey, excavation and late-Republican to early-imperial ceramics, whereas this article focuses on the late imperial and medieval pottery. As in Tom-barelle 1, ceramics are analysed through various perspectives, including typological and functional, to shed light on cul-tural, economic and culinary changes over time. Moreover, the pottery’s fragmentation in the archaeological record is tested by statistical tools to illuminate the processes of formation of deposits. The excavated data reveals that Tom-barelle was, rather than a small village as suggested by field survey, a Roman farmstead provided with annexes and production facilities that experienced a long but intermittent occupation and medieval reuse. Pottery shows its vast po-tential in shedding light on the local economy and the site’s artisanal vocation in two different phases of its Roman occu-pation. In sum, Tombarelle with its datasets offers a significant contribution to the understanding of the variety of activi-ties undertaken by the Roman rural communities along the middle Ombrone valley. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 442 - Nicola Mancassola. 2019. Castel Pizigolo, comune di Toano (RE). Campagne di scavo 2015 e 2016 . This paper presents the results of two different campaigns of archaeological excavations (August 2015 and August 2016) in the medieval castle of Castel Pizigolo (Toano, RE) conducted by Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Department of History and Cultures. This research brought to light a tower, a church and a building, and helped us to de-fine and understand the topography of the settlement. Moreover, the archaeological excavations have highlighted the chronology of the castle, from XII to XV century, with former phases of IX-X century. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 441 - Emanuele Vaccaro- Università di Siena, Kimberly Bowes, Mariaelena Ghisleni- Laboratorio di Archeologia dei Paesaggi e Telerilevamento Università di Siena. 2019. Tombarelle (Cinigiano, GR), parte I: la survey, lo scavo, le ceramiche di età tardo-repubblicana e primo-imperiale . In the period 2009-2014 the Roman Peasant Project (RPP) excavated a sample of eight rural sites, previously identified through systematic field surveys, in the territory of Cinigiano in the interior of southern Tuscany. Through an integrated approach combining geophysics, excavation, material culture study, bioarchaeology and archaeometry, the project aimed at investigating the Roman rural non-elites, their economies and life-style. In 2014, a large surface site, locally known with the evocative toponym Tombarelle, was partially excavated and despite its controversial interpretation, yielded rich evidence for a variety of human activities carried out over a long period encompassing the second half of the 1st century BC and the central centuries of the Middle Ages. The site provided a series of ceramic-rich deposits illustrat-ing its intermittent prolonged occupation and shedding light on production, integration with local, regional and overseas markets as well as on culinary habits. Given the complexity of the site, its diachrony and the significant amount of mate-rials, we decided to disseminate the results in two different articles. This first paper focuses on the site’s locale, field sur-vey, excavation and late-republican to early-imperial pottery, whereas the late antique and medieval ceramics will be the subject of a following contribution. In the first part of this paper we intend to point out the challenges of comparing field walking survey and excavation da-tasets at Tombarelle and the reductiveness of interpretative categories simply based on the ploughsoil evidence. Indeed, Tombarelle is a quintessential example of the complexity of defining, through test-excavation, the real typology of a site interpreted as a ‘village’ in field survey. The second part will focus on the ceramics from two main excavated areas, whose chronologies cover Caesar’s years through to the Augustan/Tiberian period. Despite the limited extension of excavated areas and unresolved interpretative issues, pottery offers a large amount of information and represents a unique tool to look at the local community’s daily life. Ceramics will be discussed through different perspectives: typological, contextual and functional. Through these three different approaches, we aim to illuminate several aspects such as chronology, production and consumption, local culinary strategies and processes of formation of ceramic assemblages. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 440 - Andrea Fiorini- Università di Bologna , Antonio Curci- Universitià di Bologna, Enza E. Spinapolice - Università Roma la Sapienza., Stefano Benazzi- Università di Bologna. 2019. Grotta di Uluzzo C (Nardò-Lecce): risultati preliminari, strumenti e metodi dell’indagine archeologica . The application of new technologies in archeology and in general in the field of cultural heritage is a sector in continuous development for many years. There are many conferences and magazines dedicated to the experimentation of new technologies, new instruments software and new techniques, coming mostly from the field of engineering or architecture, are employed in sectors related to archaeological research and in particular to documentation and archiving of the data. In this paper we will present a set of new methodologies applied to the Palaeolithic excavation in the context of the Uluz-zian, the first techno-complex associated with Homo Sapiens in Europe. We put in place a complex set of methods both for excavation and laboratory steps of archaeological research. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 439 - Antonia Serritella - Università degli Studi di Salerno, Maria Luigia Rizzo - Università degli Studi di Salerno. 2019. Nuove ricerche a Caselle in Pittari. From 2014 the University of Salerno has resumed investigations in Caselle in Pittari, in the hinterland of the Gulf of Poli-castro, where in the nineties of the last century was found part of a Lucanian settlement. Located at the foot of Mount Centaurino, the village extends over a large plateau bordered by two valleys in which streams flow. In the lower part of the plateau the remains of at least four large buildings and a road axis in the north-south direction were brought to light. In recent years, surveys have been carried out in the “Casa con il cortile basolato” and in the “Casa in tecnica a scac-chiera” to understand the plan and the chronology. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 438 - M. Mogetta, A.C. Johnston, M.C. Naglak, and M. D’Acri (University of Missouri). 2019. The Street System of Gabii: New Evidence on the Republican Phases . In dieci anni di scavi e ricerche all’interno del Parco Archeologico di Gabii (2009–2018) il Gabii Project ha raccolto un in-sieme di dati fondamentali per la datazione dell’impianto regolare della città, rivelato da prospezioni geofisiche condotte in precedenza (2007–2008) su larga parte dell’area all’interno delle mura, lungo le pendici meridionali del cratere di Casti-glione. L’impianto è caratterizzato da una serie di isolati di forma stretta ed allungata disposti a ventaglio su un asse stra-dale principale che si adatta alla morfologia del cratere. Da questa arteria, che nella sua fase più antica corrisponde pro-babilmente alla Via Gabina citata dale fonti letterarie, si dipartono strade laterali ad intervalli regolari, ad eccezione di un diverticolo che esce dalle mura a SE in direzione di Praeneste, messo in luce negli anni ’90 dalla SSABAP di Roma, ed in-terpretabile come tratto urbano della Via Prenestina. Le indagini stratigrafiche hanno dimostrato che, nella loro configura-zione originaria, inquadrabile alla fine del V secolo a.C., le strade erano costituite da semplici tagliate ricavate nel banco tufaceo, al di sopra delle quali sono documentati continui rifacimenti databili tra il III ed il I secolo a.C. La tipologia più fre-quente è quella delle viae glareatae, superfici stradali formate da livelli compatti di ghiaia, ciottoli e frammenti ceramici. In alcuni casi sono attestati tratti lastricati in basoli di lava (affioramenti del materiale sono noti in prossimità della città), la cui costruzione può forse essere messa in relazione con le responsabilità di manutenzione assegnate ai proprietari di case che si affacciavano sulle strade. Tre delle quattro strade laterali indagate dal Gabii Project vennero definitivamente abbandonate già alla fine del I secolo a.C., come risultato della contrazione dell’abitato, mentre Via Gabina e Via Prene-stina, di cui si conservano i lastricati di età imperiale, furono mantenute fino ad almeno il V secolo d.C. (periodo in cui si possono datare i battuti più recenti rinvenuti al di sopra del basolato della Via Gabina). Nel complesso, i dati ottenuti con-sentono di arricchire notevolmente il quadro delle conoscenze sulle dinamiche insediative di Gabii in età repubblicana. In particolare, la sequenza stratigrafica relativa alla fondazione dell’impianto urbanistico ortogonale, che sostituì un abitato organizzato in precedenza per nuclei distinti, invita a riflettere sulla relazione tra la forma della città e l’espansione romana nel Latium Vetus nel V secolo a.C. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 437 - M. Carver, A. Molinari, V. Aniceti, C. Capelli, F. Colangeli, L. Drieu, G. Fiorentino, F. Giovannini, M. Hummler, J. Lundy, A. Meo, A. Monnereau, P. Orecchioni, M. Primavera, A. Ughi . 2019. SICILY IN TRANSITION New research on early medieval Sicily, 2017-2018 . Il testo che segue riguarda la nostra ricerca archeologica sulla Sicilia bizantina, islamica e normanno-sveva e in partico-lare riporta le ultime scoperte a Castronovo di Sicilia, che includono il riconoscimento di una chiesa del XII-XIII secolo sul Monte Kassar, la continuazione dello scavo a Casale San Pietro e una sintesi delle nuove ricognizioni nelle sue vicinan-ze. Quest’ultimo sito rimane il focus principale del Progetto ERC sictransit, ma in questa sede diamo anche conto dei primi risultati di un’indagine più ampia, che include una grossa quantità di reperti che provengono da tutta la Sicilia da siti scavati in precedenza (Fig 1). Questi reperti consistino in ceramiche, metalli e vetri assieme a resti umani, animali e ve-getali, che vengono analizzati nei laboratori delle università partner del progetto: York, Roma e Lecce. I principali metodi scientifici applicati sono: analisi tipologiche, petrografiche e del contenuto organico delle ceramiche da cucina e da tra-sporto; degli isotopi stabili e del DNA antico sui resti umani e animali per determinare la dieta e l’ascendenza genetica; in-fine la identificazione tassonomica e la caratterizzazione isotopica degli insiemi di resti botanici per comprendere le loro relazioni con il clima e con le diverse fasi storiche. Il progetto “Sicily in Transition” (acronym: Sictransit) combina quindi ricerche archeologiche, bioarcheologiche e biomolecolari in un unico progetto integrato. Gli obiettivi attesi sono stati sud-divisi, per comodità e chiarezza, in tre principali aree di studio, vale a dire: agricoltura (e cibo), scambi e demografia. Infi-ne concludiamo con una valutazione della ricerca svolta sul campo e delle prospettive di indagine dei tre laboratori PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 436 - Fabio Fabiani, Claudia Rizzitelli,Davide Caramella, Giulia Feriani, Rossana Izzetti, Stefano Legnaioli, Simona Minozzi, Stefano Pagnotta, Vincenzo Palleschi, Luca Parodi. 2019. Longobardi a Pisa: le necropoli di Via Marche e dell’Area Scheibler . The necropoli of Via Marche and of Scheibler Area, excavated in the outskirts of Pisa between 2001 and 2006, have sig-nificant implication for the knowledge of the city during the Lombard period. In fact, they allow to recognize settlements near the center involved in the management of resources of the suburbs. Most of the finds date the use of both the ne-cropolises in the seventh century. The composition and the typology of the grave goods allow to enrich understanding of the social structure, the rituals, the social conventions and customs which characterized the local society. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 435 - Myles McCallum, Saint Mary’s University (Canada), Martin Beckmann, McMaster University (Canada), Simone Nardelli, Mibact, Matt Munro, University of Calgary (Canada). 2019. The excavations at the so-called Villa of Titus (Castel Sant’Angelo, Rieti). During the months of May and June, 2018, a team of archaeologists and archaeological students engaged in fieldwork at the site of the so-called Villa di Tito (Villa of Titus), a monumental complex situated alongside the ancient Via Salaria on a terrace above Lago di Paterno in the territory of the comune of Castel Sant’Angelo (province of Rieti) (fig. 1). The struc-ture consists of a massive concrete terracing wall defining a large platform 60 m in length (E-W) and ca. 20 m wide (N-S), atop of which are various smaller structures (fig. 2). The excavation of the site was directed by Drs. Myles McCallum (Saint Mary’s University) and Martin Beckmann (McMaster University), their Italian collaborator and coordinator, dott. Simone Nardelli, and their field director, Matt Munro, a PhD student in archaeology (University of Calgary). PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 434 - F. Mollo, A. Laino , M. Puglisi, E. Rizzo, M. Sergi, M. Sfacteria, P. Siclari. 2019. Lo scavo nel Foro di Blanda sul Palecastro di Tortora: campagna di scavo 2018 . A new campaign of archaeological investigations on the Palecastro hill, where the Roman city of Blanda stood, took place between 28 May and 29 June 2018. The 2018 intervention, carried out by the University of Messina, concerned the sectors of the City Forum, already partially investigated during the 2016 and 2017 campaigns. The excavations fo-cused on areas 1000, 3000 and 6000 and allowed us not only to better understand the layout of the Forum but they also offered numerous evidences related to the archaic phase of the settlement. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 433 - F. Mollo, E. Donato, M. Sergi, M. Sfacteria. 2019. Le ricerche archeologiche alla Petrosa di Scalea (2017-2018): rapporto preliminare . The site of Petrosa di Scalea (CS) consists of a large rocky platform, strongly prominent on the sea, characterized by a complex of three oblong-shaped hills. The site has been the subject of archaeological investigations in November 1975 carried out by P. G. Guzzo, who recognized a hut settlement attributable to populations of oenotrian culture, which is the only one known for southern Italy. the excavations carried out by the University of Messina in 2017 have shed new light on the issue, as they have unearthed the remains of a stone structure that could be part of the boundary walls of the vil-lage. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 432 - Sabrina Mutino, Rosanna Calabrese, Benedetto Carroccio, Franca C. Papparella. 2019. Potenza, località Stompagno. Prime considerazioni sullo scavo della necropoli altomedievale . In this paper the necropolis of the locality Stompagno di Potenza, ascribed to the VI-VII century, is analyzed. The funer-ary nucleus, perhaps part of a larger necropolis, was found in 2009 during the construction of the pipeline. It consists of 7 tombs that have a different structure (cappuccina, with tiles); they are characterized by the deposition of only one in-humation, or were reused, and present both ritual and personal equipment. The necropolis of Stompagno is part of the territorial context of the Northern Provincia Lucania, which analyzes the available data as a territory rich in archaeologi-cal evidence of the VI-VII century. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 431 - Maureen Carroll - University of Sheffield. 2019. Preliminary Report on the University of Sheffield Excavations in the Vi-cus of the Roman Imperial Estate at Vagnari, Puglia, 2012-2018. Imperial properties in Italy have been studied primarily on the basis of historical texts and epigraphic evidence. The well documented archaeological sequences of occupation and diagnostic assemblages at Vagnari in Puglia offer an invalua-ble and fresh perspective on profound changes in social and political circumstances, population mobility, and economic regimes in the context of Roman imperial ownership. After seven years of fieldwork here, we are now able to document and better understand the transformation of a late Republican agricultural settlement in private possession into a vast estate owned by the Roman emperor. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 430 - Ivo Van der Graaff - University of New Hampshire, Michael L. Thomas, University of Texas at Austin, Paul Wilkinson - Swale and Thames, UK, Jennifer L. Muslin - University of Texas, John R. Clarke University of Texas at Austin, Nayla Muntasser, Giovanni Di Maio. 2019. First Results of Three Seasons of Excavation at Oplontis B (2016-18). The Oplontis Project has investigated Oplontis Villa B, located in Torre Annunziata, Italy, since 2012. The site fell victim to the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE together with its celebrated neighbor, Villa A, a UNESCO world heritage site also known as the Villa of Poppaea. The project’s aim is to produce a comprehensive study of buildings at Oplontis B that in-clude a Roman wine emporium and ancillary structures excavated by Italian authorities between the 1970s and 1990s. As part of this investigation, the project has carried out systematic excavations to shed light on the development of the site as well as to clean and document the standing remains. This report presents the preliminary results of the last three excavation campaigns conducted in the weeks of late May and early June between 2016 and 2018. The early results in-clude a unique local eruptive sequence that buried the site, the discovery of a kiln, and the recovery of earlier (pre-) Roman buildings that demonstrate a dynamic development of the complex. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 429 - Marco Serra - Dipartimento di Lettere, Lingue e Beni culturali Facoltà di Studi Umanistici, Università degli Studi di Cagliari , Valentina Mameli - Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche - Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Carla Cannas - Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche - Università degli Studi di Cagliari. 2019. Proprietà tecnologiche e provenienza delle materie prime impiegate per la produzione delle statue menhir di Aiodda-Nurallao (Sardegna centra-le): il contributo dell’archeometria . Macroscopic examinations and chemical measurements by non destructive pXRF, ICP-OES and ICP-MS have been applied on 10 geological samples collected from the fossiliferous limestone of the Villagreca Unit, outcropping in Nurallao (central Sardinia). The results of this study have allowed to determine the geochemical intra-source variability of the lithic raw material while the mineralogical investigation performed by PXRD on the same geological samples have led to define some technological properties of the limestone. Then, on 13 Eneolithic menhirs coming from the archaeological site of Aiodda-Nurallao (dating back to the 3rd millennium BC) non destructive pXRF measurements and visual observations have been carried out according to conservative limitations. Through the comparison between artifacts and lithological outcrop’s analytical data, the authors have been able to define the geological source of the raw materials employed in megalithic sculptures manufacturing. Basing on the raw material technological properties, it has been possible to record the trend to select soft stones easy to work by prehistoric technologies. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 428 - Federica Stella Mosimann - Università degli Studi di Padova - Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali, Arturo Zara - Università degli Studi di Padova. 2019. Lo scavo del crollo di un vano affrescato dell’edificio ad est del foro di Nora (Sardegna) Nuovi contributi dallo studio della pittura parietale . Dynamics of collapse of a building are one of the most complex processes to understand in archaeology, so their re-construction is only possible facing different lines of research at the same time. This paper describes the case-study of a collapse of a painted room in a middle imperial building of the ancient city of Nora (Sardinia) and aims to validate a combined analysis of archaeological, technical and iconographic data as the only way to get a trustworthy reconstruc-tion of the paintings. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet